1888 - Utopian science fiction with Looking Backward, 2000–1887, published in January
1888, captured the public imagination and catapulted Bellamy to literary fame.
Bellamy, a cousin and friend of Francis Bellamy, would establish the Nationalist
Clubs the same year.
Nationalist Clubs were an organized network of socialist political groups which
emerged at the end of the 1880s in the United States of America in an effort to make
real the ideas advanced by Edward Bellamy in his utopian novel, Looking
Backward. At least 165 Nationalist Clubs were formed by so-called "Bellamyites,"
who sought to remake economy and society through the nationalization of industry.[
1892 - Proposal of a Pledge of Allegiance to displace teaching of founding documents in
schools by Francis Bellamy, a socialist minister, (1855-1931).
The Pledge of Allegiance was written in August 1892. It was originally published in
The Youth's Companion on September 8, 1892.
1903 - Federal Government converts state militias to National Guard. Militia (Dick) Act.
1909 - Publication of "The Promise of American Life," by Herbert Croly, founder of The New
Republic, in 1909. This book opposed aggressive unionization and supported economic
planning to raise general quality of life. After reading this book, Theodore Roosevelt
adopted the New Nationalism.
The book is said to "offer a manifesto of Progressive beliefs" that "anticipated the
transition from competitive to corporate capitalism and from limited government to the
1912 - - The First Lapse-Time Camera - Built by Arthur C. Pillsbury as the beginning of his
campaign to persuade Americans to preserve the Wildflowers.
Spring - Horace M. Albright attends a lecture for the Phi Beta Kappa by Woodrow
Wilson, then governor of New Jersey, at Berkeley. Fascinated by Wilson he studies
his work and votes for him in November.
May 15 - Horace M. Albright graduates from Berkeley. Now in law school he
becomes very friendly with Professor William E. Colby, who is his professor of law
for mines and water. Albright accompanies Colby to a meeting of the Sierra Club
where he meets John Muir, who he describes as looking like a shaggy dog. The issue
of the Hetch Hetchy is discussed.
August 28 - Albright begins working as a reader for Professor Adolph Miller.
October 14 - 16 - Superintendents Conference, Yosemite - First showing Lapse-Tie
flowers by Pillsbury results in a move to begin preservation.
November - Secretary Fisher convenes a hearing on Hetch Hetchy, with advocates
for both sides testifying. At the conclusion of the hearing, Secretary Fisher turns over
all the testimony to his advisory board, all professional engineers. Woodrow Wilson
is elected President, and would appoint former San Francisco City Attorney Franklin
Lane as Secretary of the Interior. Lane supports damming Hetch Hetchy, though he
never visited it. San Francisco renews its campaign to dam Hetch Hetchy; hires
Michael M. O'Shaughnessy as city engineer.
1913 - February - the Interior secretary's engineer's report recommends damming Hetch
Hetchy, though acknowledging other options existed. On March 1, three days before
leaving office, Secretary Fisher decides that he lacks the statutory authority to grant a
permit to San Francisco, thus throwing the decision to Congress. Over the rest of the
year, Congress holds hearings, and the City lobbies hard. The New York Times
repeatedly opposes damming of Hetch Hetchy, along with most other newspapers in
the country. Senators receive thousands of letters opposing destruction of Hetch
December 19 - Congress passes the Raker Bill, allowing flooding of Hetch Hetchy
Valley. The bill stipulates that the city could not sell water or power for resale.
President Woodrow Wilson signs the bill.
Federal Reserve Act is passed by Congress under the administration of Woodrow
Wilson as part of a deal cut by the corporations.
16th Amendment, passed by Congress in 1909, is ratified.
1914 - Last Sierra Club outing to Hetchy Hetchy Valley.
December 24 - John Muir dies.
1933 - Business Plot - Corporate interests solicit Lt. General Smedley Butler to lead a
military action and remove FDR from office.
1934 - Investigative Committee - Butler tells Congress of the plot and a congressional
investigative committee is formed. Headed by John W. McCormack and Samuel
Dickstein, the committee was called the “McCormack-Dickstein Committee,” later
known as the “Special Committee on Un-American Activities.”
November 24 - The McCormack-Dickstein Committee released a preliminary report
stating they are hearing Butler’s testimony on the plot and that it heavily relied on
hearsay thus far. The alleged plot came under fire in the press, most notably by The
New York Times and Time Magazine.
1935 - Publication of "War is a Racket," by Lt. General Smedley Butler